Eye witness report from the Rohingya refugee camps

I sent this hand-written message to children in the Rohingya refugee camps on the Myanmar/Bangladesh border where the UN Refugee Agency is hard at work building makeshift schools out of local bamboo. More than half of the 742,000 people who fled there for their lives from what they call “Buddhist Terror” are of school age and in urgent need of education and support.

It is a grim irony that it was precisely for being a little Buddhist myself, that I faced taunts and harassment in the primary school I attended.

Many fear that this unresolved crisis is a “time-bomb” for devastating future conflict. The young people in the camps, many of them severely traumatised, have witnessed unspeakable horrors.  The possibility of future revenge was very much in my mind when I wrote to them about the need to respect and protect our human family.

There are  Voices of Courage speaking out against the brutal suppression of the Rohingya people in Myanmar — and asking us to help the hundreds of thousands of victims of this humanitarian catastrophe, now under international investigation for genocide.

When I was in the border camps with the survivors of these “killing fields”, the desperate people I met there called this nightmare the “Buddhist Terror.”

I tried to put what I witnessed into words:  Meditating on the Buddha in the Midst of Buddhist Terror .  It has since been published by Lion’s Roar, one of the Buddhist world’s most widely read online journals.

These people’s villages were set on fire. They were shot as they fled. The soldiers threw their babies into the flames. The medical workers in the refugee camps are treating hundreds of women who have been raped and horrifically scarred by sexual cruelty.

Hearing their testimony was so unbearable to me as a Buddhist, my hands were trembling as I tried to hold my camera.

These people want the world to hear their story.

This time there is something we can do

We Buddhists have a special responsibility. We need to raise our voices against these atrocities, and make clear this violence is not being done in our name.  We need to do whatever we can to help the victims.

So often when we see devastating news reports, we have no idea how to help. Our sense of helpless makes the compassionate pain we feel all the more intense. This time, however, there is something we can do.

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Buddhist activists appeal to Myanmar leaders, bring aid to fleeing victims

World Buddhist leaders are appealing for peace in Myanmar and Buddhist charities are bringing aid to victims fleeing the violence.

A Rohingya refugee family on the side of the road without shelter in Bangladesh Photo ©: UNCHR/Adam Dean.

Buddhist Global Relief, founded by one of the western world’s leading translators of the Buddha’s teachings, and the Tzu Chi (literally “Compassionate Relief”) Foundation, launched by a renowned Taiwanese Buddhist nun, are both dedicating relief resources to what UN Secretary General Antonio Guiterres has called “a humanitarian and human rights nightmare.”

The United Nations and major aid agencies now report that more than half a million people – mainly women, children and the elderly – have fled over the border between Myanmar (also known as Burma) and Bangladesh since late August. Thousands more continue to flood in every day. 

The exodus is the fastest exodus of human beings from a single country since the outbreak of the Rwandan genocide. The vast majority are members of Myanmar’s Muslim Rohingya, caught up in a violent conflagration that, according to the country’s security forces, includes official “cleansing operations”. The military said 176 out of 471 villages had been emptied of people, and an additional 34 villages “partially abandoned.”

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Mindfulness and Public Policy

International legislators gather in London to contemplate mindfulness in politics

“I got thrown out of yoga for laughing,” UK government minister Tracey Couch told an international conference  of legislators exloring mindfulness and public policy. “So mindfulness as a means of helping me deal with my depression and anxiety was not something I thought was going to work.”

As Minister for Sport and Civil Society and a Conservative member of parliament, she was opening the first-ever international gathering of political leaders, educators, scientists, researchers and medical specialists to discuss “mindfulness in politics”. The event in London’s Westminster was attended by legislators from 15 nations, invited  by the nation’s All-Party Parliamentary Group on Mindfulness.

 ‘It really clicked”

“After attending my third session of training offered by the Mindfulness Group, I got it,” she said. “It really clicked. This is helping me: the understanding of who you are and how you can cope. Mindfulness teaches you to be in the present moment and not to be beating yourself up.”

Personal as her statement was, it was the opening of an event focused on public policy. “In fact,” said Dr Jon Kabat-Zinn, the molecular biologist described as the godfather of the contemporary mindfulness movement, “I always saw my work as a public health intervention.”

In 1979 Dr Kabat-Zinn founded the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) Clinic at the University of Massachusetts Medical School, and in 1995, opened the Center for Mindfulness in Medicine, Health Care, and Society. “When we started, there were no grants for mindfulness,” he told the conference. “Now there are scores of millions of dollars going into mindfulness research every year.”

“What we are learning from neuroscience now is that the brain is an organ of experience,” he said. “It is actually shape shifting, transforming itself on the basis of our experience from moment to moment. This is called functional connectivity or neuroplasticity. It’s been shown that in eight weeks of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction different regions of the brain get more dense. Other parts, like the amygdala which is the stress reactivity centre, actually reduce.”

The impact of the MBSR training on people suffering with depression was a key factor in bringing mindfulness to the attention of the British Parliament. Chris Ruane, Labour MP for the Welsh constituency of Clywd, broke the ground with an intervention in the House of Commons in 2012.

He presented research findings on the benefits of mindfulness training for people suffering from depression and dependency on prescription drugs. He called on the government to explore the application of mindfulness in health care and other public services, including those offering support to the unemployed.

Mindful Nation UK

 In the five years since Chris Ruane’s speech, the research has continued. With the formation of the All-Party Parliamentary Group on Mindfulness – and painstaking training of more than a hundred MPs, lords and civil servants – came the publication in 2015 of the group’s own research report Mindful Nation UK.

The parliamentarians’ report made policy recommendations for the practical application of mindfulness training in the areas of health care, education, the criminal justice system and the workplace.

At the London conference, an expert panel presented the results of efforts to implement the report’s recommendations. Hearing the results was one of the features that drew more than a hundred leaders and professionals in the fields of mindfulness and politics from around the world to the event. They came from countries as diverse as France and Sri Lanka, Croatia and Israel, the United States and Morocco.

“One billion people will suffer from depression at some point in their lifetime,” Willem Kuyken, Professor of Clinical Psychology and Director of the Oxford Mindfulness Centre, told the gathering. “The priority for health care systems around the world is going to be moving away from communicable diseases, dysentery and water-borne diseases to mental health. That’s a massive challenge we all face.”

A growing body of clinical research

There is a growing body of clinical research and practice that strongly suggests mindfulness training could be a key component in meeting that challenge. Dr Rebecca Crane, Director of the Centre for Mindfulness Research and Practice at Bangor University, Wales, described the development of a further mindfulness training system known as Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT). Integrating mindfulness with cognitive science, it is particularly designed for the needs of those suffering from depression.

 “We are still in the midst of the research,” she said. “In trials, MBCT halved the expected rate of relapse. There is increasing vulnerability with each episode of depression, and MBCT really supports people to reduce that vulnerability.” After further trials in 2004, The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), recommended its use in the country’s National Health Service (NHS).”

Within only two years of the publication of the Mindful Nation UK report, two of its four recommendations for health policy are now being implemented. MBCT has become a “mandated” primary care intervention for psychological therapy services across England. This endorsement requires that it become widely available. The second policy success is that the NHS has agreed to fund the training of MBCT teachers for psychological therapy services. The teacher training will start in March 2018.

The impact of trauma and abuse

The Mindful Nation UK report also recommended that the NHS and the National Offender Management Service should work together to ensure the urgent implementation of NICE’s recommended Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) for recurrent depression in the country’s prisons and parole system.

“The majority of people with whom we work face significant challenges, environmentally, psychologically and in relation to the impact that trauma and abuse have had on their personality formation,” said Amaladipa Remigio, Head of Public Protection for the National Probation Service in Wales. “This can result in behaviours that are harmful to themselves, to others and to society.”

“Levels of addiction and poor mental health are much higher than in the rest of the population, and incidents of violence, suicide and intentional self-injury have been at their highest recorded levels in the last 12 months. Recently, an offender was taking their own life every three days in British prisons,” she said to audible gasps from the conference.

In an attempt to find out if mindfulness training could be helpful, her service ran three experimental programs in high-risk offender hostels in Cardiff and Swansea, followed by a much larger research project designed in conjunction with Swansea University. It involved both offenders and probation officers and was conducted between January and October this year. “Mindfulness training is reducing stress levels, improving emotional self-management, creating a psychological space where more creative responses can develop and enhancing resilience, creativity and compassion,” Ms Remigio said.

“I’ve spent 24 out of the last 30 years in prison,” said Mark, a former offender released within the last year. He held the conference spellbound as he described his journey and his incessant mental turmoil. He described how, after attending his first mindfulness session, he went home, “did a short practice” before lying down on his bed and slept for what he said was the first time in those 30 years.

“Mindfulness has given me my life back,” he said. “I can walk down the street. I can stand here today. Believe me, for me this is a big, big deal. For a stubborn person like myself, if it can do it for me, then there’s an awful lot of other people in prisons today that could benefit from this.”

It is not only those who are incarcerated or on probation who are affected. Nicola, a probation officer, reported on the postive impact of mindfulness practice in what she called her “relentless” work, and Baroness Angela Harris spoke of the successful efforts to introduce mindfulness therapy into the units where British police receive trauma counselling and care.

Reflecting on the research data and testimonials, Dr Kabat-Zinn told the gathering, “I don’t think we realize the extent to which we are miraculous beings. Humans have this profound capacity for imagination, creativity and kindness even under very, very difficult circumstances.”

“Are you proposing an anti-politics?”

 “Mindfulness is about how we carry ourselves,” said Kabat-Zinn. “Carrying is the root meaning of the verb ‘to suffer’. We are carrying a lot of negativity, often a lot of anger and resentment. It weighs on us. But what if we learned how to carry things with a greater embrace of awareness? Yes, the circumstances outwardly would be the same as they always were, but inwardly we would have potentially new degrees of freedom in working with old and very, very knotty problems. We can modulate our behaviour. We can learn.”

“I wonder if you are proposing an anti-politics,” asked Alan Howarth, a Labour peer in the House of Lords, drawing a sustained round of applause. “During my political lifetime the dominant political ideologies have been about conflict and competition. Does this offer an antidote to the ideologies of conflict and competition? Or are you suggesting that politics is capable of being made humane?”

“Is the world, as we have constructed it, up to the task?” Kabat-Zinn asked in response. “It is getting more urgent to know the answer to that question. We are really talking about an orthogonal rotation in consciousness. The word means ‘rotated at ninety degrees’. Instead of running on auto-pilot until we are at each others’ throats, can we see with fresh eyes so that we are not using our science to destroy more and more people?”

“Maybe it starts with talking to people we don’t usually talk to. Mostly we are in an echo-chamber,” Kabat-Zinn replied. “We need to train ourselves in listening, so we become a stethoscope listening to the heart of the country.”

[The international conference, hosted by The Mindfulness Initiative, was held in London, October 2017.]



Buddhists appeal to Myanmar monks: end ethnic cleansing

“The Buddha would have helped those poor Muslims,” said His Holiness the Dalai Lama this past week as the world witnessed with horror the latest eruption of communal violence, terror and ethnic cleansing. This time it is in Myanmar (Burma).

Yet again a civilian population is bearing the brunt of the suffering. More that 400,000 people, mainly women and children, have fled killings and the burning of their villages. Another 150,000 are reported trapped in the mountains. They have been without food for two weeks and the pass they need to escape through has been mined by the military.

Photo: Channel 4 TV ” Exodus of Rohingya refugees from Myanmar”

The vast majority are members of the Muslim Rohingya community, described by the United Nations as “the most heavily persecuted ethnic group in the world.” Others, from the country’s Buddhist majority, are fleeing for shelter in the regional capital Sittwe.

A startling feature

A startling feature of this tragedy has been the inflammatory speeches of some of the Buddhist monks in the country. As in so many other conflicts those inciting violence have been a small, but vociferous, minority.

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“Absolutely, this is it!”


One of the leading universities in the Arab world has begun introducing the practice of mindfulness to its faculty, staff and students, and succeeded in developing a ground-breaking translation that expresses the meaning of mindfulness, for the first time, in Arabic. For a rising generation of religious leaders, the building of this bridge between cultures and traditions has deep meaning.


The rising tide of hatred

“It all begins with the idea of ‘them’ and ‘us’,” says the young imam as we sit together on the floor of the mosque talking about the rising tide of hatred in the world. We gather after Friday prayers – young scholars in the rising generation of Muslim leaders – to talk about the global issues now facing humanity.

It is an unusual gathering, because we also practice mindfulness together. “The practice of mindfulness is important,” one of the young imams tells me. “We appreciate it. We have to be fully present in whatever we do. We have to be fully present in our prayers. We have to be fully present with each other.”

Not only is our shared practice of mindfulness unusual, so is our location. We are at Morocco’s leading university Al Akhawayn – often known as AUI – established by royal decree to promote “the values of human solidarity and tolerance” in this predominantly Muslim nation.

This group of about a dozen imams who have completed their memorization and scriptual study of the Quran are now full-time post-graduate students in the university’s comparative religion program. The program was the brain-child of the country’s Minister for Islamic Affairs who wanted this next generation to have a broader international perspective on the diversity of the world’s wisdom traditions.

Version 3

The university first invited me to present mindfulness practice to the young imams in 2014, to lead an open practice session for the university as a whole, and to give a presidential address on “Seeds of War, Seeds of Peace – Religious Conflict in Today’s World.”

I made no secret of my own buddhist background and took this opportunity to express my deep regret at the rise of buddhist extremism in South and Southeast Asia which has led to devastating attacks on Muslim minorities. The visit also opened the door to an energetic discussion with students and faculty on the question: “Is Enlightened Society Possible?”

We have maintained a relationship ever since, exploring the mindfulness practice tradition together, as well as examining the underlying forces responsible for so much of the conflict and carnage we are witnessing.

Transcending our boundaries

 We found that approaching mindfulness practice from the perspective of the ever-growing body of research into neuroscience was particularly helpful and fascinating to all of us. The scientific focus on the physiology and functionality of the human nervous system has offered us the possibility of looking at ourselves and each in other in ways that transcend the barriers of culture, religious tradition, language, and politics.

The deeper we have gone into this together, the more we have come to value our shared humanity as something more powerful and fundamental than our differences. In the midst of the pain, confusion and fear in the world around us, the words of this next generation strike a deep note of understanding, truth and hope.

 “Them and us” becomes “them or us”

The idea of “them and us” becomes “them or us” the young imam warns me. “You may be right, I may be right. We both believe we are right. But that doesn’t mean that we cannot make a relationship with each other and work together. We are human beings – which means we are different. We have different backgrounds, different languages, different beliefs. But we are human and it is our humanity that is most important. We are one family. Even now, if you examine our DNA, it is clear. We are one family and that is what is most important.”

Partly because of the bridging function that mindfulness practice can play, and partly because of the considerable interest in mindfulness among business leaders, educators and health professionals, the university’s senior leadership asked to receive intensive “mindful leadership” training. After a presentation to the university’s president and other senior officials, they asked the Cologne-based Kalapa Leadership Academy to provide this training.

The Kalapa Academy has run similar programs for major companies such as Audi, Bosch and Jaguar and for institutions such as Oxford University and the European Space Agency. The academy has just been awarded the “Best Training in Europe” Prize given annually since 1992 for training, consulting and coaching, by the European professional association for trainers, consultants and coaches (BDVT).”

Executive training in mindful leadership

The academy’s founder and managing director, Chris Tamdjidi, and I delivered 10 workshops over a period of two and a half months to Al Akhawayn’s 18-strong Executive Leadership Team. The university was well aware of our Buddhist background in the Shambhala tradition of cultivating enlightened society. It regarded our presence as a contribution to its tradition of encouraging inter-faith dialogue, understanding and mutual learning. While acknowledging this, we nevertheless presented mindfulness practice solely from a scientific and experiential perspective.


The participants in the executive training were given digital Attention Network Tests and psychometric self-assessments at the beginning and end of the training. They received individual profiles of their test results and an aggregated research report on the effects of the training on the group as a whole. The data has been added to the cumulative research findings of the Kalapa Academy.

At the end of the training, in addition to completing the psychometric tests, they talked to us about their experience. They told us they felt the training had made an impact on them in three areas of their lives: individual, professional and social.

“A real change in my life”

“I really feel this has been an experience of such positive energy,” said one, highlighting the individual impact. “I feel physically different. I am becoming more calm,” said another. “I do the body scan before going to sleep, which has made a real change in my life.”

Describing the effect on their professional life, one said, “I am being mindful with my colleagues. We deal better with each other in our meetings and we are more productive.” The training seemed to resonate with the experience many of these leaders had in running the institution’s complexity and diversity. “I now have ‘names’ for the ways of working with others that I knew from my own previous experience,” said one. “I have found the team-building aspect of our mindfulness training to be of great benefit.”

The third aspect that some described the social impact, including on their home lives. “I have learned how to adjust from leaving work to going home,” said one. “I really notice the difference in the ‘me’ I am at home. I am able to close my work day before I leave for home. I now relate to my wife and kids with a far better version of ‘me’ than the previous version of the person who brought the stress of work home with him.”

Progressive possibilities

In the course of the executive training, the former director of the university’s School of Business Adminstration, Dr Wafa El Garah – now Vice-President for Academic Affairs – said they would like to offer a course on “Mindful Leadership” during the business school’s summer semester. Her hope was that this would offer progressive possibilities for mindfulness training to all faculty, staff and students. I have now returned from leading that summer program, daily over seven weeks, including during their observance of the holy month of Ramadan.


“This course was a great opportunity for me to take some time during the day and be with myself,” one of the students said. “It was an opporunity to feel the tension in my body, to feel my breathing, to feel myself actually.”

“Mindfulness helped me a lot,” said another one who, along with the others, made a personal video showing her understanding and personal experience of mindfulness practice. “I’m a person who always finds herself daydreaming and focussing on other stuff – anything but the present moment,” she said. “Mindfulness helped me in being less stressful and in enjoying life.”

Her video shows her teaching mindfulness to her mother and to her younger brother and sister. As one of the other students said, “If we can synchronize the activity of the billions of neurons we have in our brains and nervous systems, what we can accomplish will be amazing.”

“It is our people who suffer most at the hands of ISIS”

After ISIS killers carried out the “Bataclan massacre” in Paris, the university’s young imams sent a message to me asking if I could visit to meditate with them and talk. They continue to be appalled by the staggering levels of violence that are tearing apart so much of the Middle East, North Africa and sub-Saharan Africa – and the repercussions around the world. “After all,” as one of them said to me, “it is our people, the Muslims, who are suffering the most at the hands of ISIS.”

“Only violence makes the news, not peace”

“Even worse,” they said, “this death-cult has turned the world against Islam – when in fact what these monsters are doing is against everything that Islam truly represents. We can say this to you from our hearts because we are Islamic scholars and we have trained in this tradition all our lives. But you do not see our voices anywhere in the media, because only violence makes the news, not peace.”

Our perceptions of the world and how these are shaped have been a constant theme in our conversations. Many times the imams have talked about what they believe to be selective interpretation of events by much of the world’s news media.

They point out that a conference held in Morocco earlier this year adopted a Marrakesh Declaration calling for the protection of religious minorities in predominantly Muslim countries. It was attended by some 250 Muslim leaders and scholars from virtually all the main traditions within Islam. I was honoured to be there as part of a small group of international guests from different faith traditions.


The Muslim leaders unanimously agreed “to confront all forms of religious bigotry, villification, and denegration of what people hold sacred, as well as all speech that promotes hatred and bigotry” and affirmed that it is “unconscionable to employ religion for the purpose of aggressing upon the rights of religious minorities in Muslim countries.”

To date, none of us are not aware of any significant coverage of this historic event by any of the world’s major news media.

As a result of the time we spent practicing mindfulness together and having open-hearted conversations, I felt these rising leaders wanted to be offered, not only the hand of friendship, but also a bridge to a world that all too often seems closed to dialogue. They want the walls of ignorance and prejudice to come down. Writing – with their permission – about these intimate exchanges I have had with them is, I hope, a way of bringing their voices to wider attention.

Finding the right word in Arabic

One of the challenges we faced was finding the right word to express the notion of “mindfulness” in Arabic. The original term in the Pali language of South Asia is “sati.”

It denotes the ability of the human mind to be cognizant of its own nature, activity and experience. Dr Jon Kabat-Zinn uses this definition: “paying attention on purpose, in the present moment, non judgmentally.” The university’s president, Dr Driss Oauouicha, took the lead in finding a meaningful Arabic equivalent.

“Although you can find translations on the web, there is no translation in Arabic, as far as we know, that really expresses the experience of mindfulness,” he told his leadership team. “Our first efforts were translations based on the French, ‘pleine conscience’. But we felt that was not the full meaning. So we then consulted Professor Bouchaib Idrissi Bouyahiaoui, the founding director of Morocco’s national translation and interpretation school. We discussed it together for some time and I think we came up with an expression that seemed to both of us to convey what we are talking about. In French this would be ‘la veille de l’esprit’, or in English, ‘the mind fully awake and observing’.”


A phonetic rendering of the term in English would be: “Yah-khah-dha Dhih-ní-a”.

Soon after this translation was adopted by the university, we were able to present it to Her Excellency Ms Ohood Al Roumi, the recently appointed Minister of State for Happiness of the United Arab Emirates. She was visiting the London School of Economics in June this year to examine its research into happiness and also requested meetings with the University of Oxford Mindfulness Centre and with the UK All-Party Parliamentary Group on Mindfulness and the UK Mindfulness Initiative. They made a considerable impact internationally with the publication of their 2015 report, Mindful Nation UK.


The delegation that met her included Chris Tamdjidi as well as the founder of the UK parliamentary group, Chris Ruane, who is shown above presenting the framed translation. During the meeting, Minister Al Roumi explained that she herself had already engaged in a mindfulness course and that both she and a number of her colleagues who took part found it to be extremely helpful.

“Absolutely, this is it!”

Minister Al Roumi remarked that there was no word for mindfulness in Arabic, and there needed to be one.  However as soon as she saw the framed calligraphy she exclaimed, “I agree, absolutely, this is it!”

The students and faculty in Morocco were inspired at news of this endorsement and by the feeling that these initiaives could spread throughout their region. “This could have a really positive impact on the culture in our region and how we communicate and work together,” said one.

“I really hope we can show the world how mindfulness works,” said the young woman who is getting her family to practice with her. “And I really hope that we can make Morocco a leader in mindfulness.”