Buddhists appeal to Myanmar monks: end ethnic cleansing

“The Buddha would have helped those poor Muslims,” said His Holiness the Dalai Lama this past week as the world witnessed with horror the latest eruption of communal violence, terror and ethnic cleansing. This time it is in Myanmar (Burma).

Yet again a civilian population is bearing the brunt of the suffering. More that 400,000 people, mainly women and children, have fled killings and the burning of their villages. Another 150,000 are reported trapped in the mountains. They have been without food for two weeks and the pass they need to escape through has been mined by the military.

Photo: Channel 4 TV ” Exodus of Rohingya refugees from Myanmar”

The vast majority are members of the Muslim Rohingya community, described by the United Nations as “the most heavily persecuted ethnic group in the world.” Others, from the country’s Buddhist majority, are fleeing for shelter in the regional capital Sittwe.

A startling feature

A startling feature of this tragedy has been the inflammatory speeches of some of the Buddhist monks in the country. As in so many other conflicts those inciting violence have been a small, but vociferous, minority.

Their leader, the monk Ashin Wirathu, was imprisoned for inciting racial hatred in 2003, then released under a general amnesty in 2012. That same year communal riots between Buddhists and Muslims erupted in the state of Rakine, where the current crisis is unfolding.

This weekend an international Buddhist appeal was launched calling on the country’s Buddhist monastic leaders to take “a strong stand against hate speech and ethnic cleansing.”

So far signed by more than 100 teachers and leaders from all major schools of Buddhism, the appeal says, “We are greatly disturbed by what many in the world see as slander and distortion of the Buddha’s teachings. In the Dhamma [Buddhist teachings] there is no justification for hatred and violence. Mean-spirited words and direct provocation . . . stand in stark contradiction to monastic precepts and Buddha’s teachings on universal morality, peace, and tolerance.”

Photo: Lion’s Roar

The appeal is addressed to Myanmar’s top Buddhist monastic council. The council has already banned Wirathu from giving sermons for a year, saying he would face “action under the rule of law” for any breach of the order. It has also ordered his nationalist organization to cease its activities.

Wirathu and his followers have insisted that they will not be silenced either by the Buddhist leadership or state authorities. Just before the latest upsurge of violence, they called on the government to resign, saying it is their nationalist movement alone that can now “protect the state”.

Although the extremist faction is said to have intimidated many Buddhists from speaking out, individual monks in various parts of the country have publicly demonstrated the courage of their convictions, stepping into the midst of riots to stop outbreaks of fighting.

This weekend’s appeal urges the monastic council to “uphold Buddhism by further enforcing [the council’s] recent rulings, taking a strong stand against hate speech and ethnic cleansing.”

This humanitarian catastrophe

This humanitarian catastophe has not come out of nowhere. The Rohingya people, who have lived in Myanmar for generations, were stripped of their citizenship in 1974 by the military government. Several hundred thousand have fled the country since.

By 2016 what many predicted came to pass. An armed insurgent group now calling itself the Rohingya “Salvation Army” has been formed. It is reportedly led by a committee of Rohingya émigrés in Saudi Arabia, with supporters also in Pakistan. It is commanded on the ground by Rohingya with international training and experience in guerrilla warfare.

On 25 August they launched their largest attack so far on police posts and an army base. In response the government said it needed to “wipe out the threat of terrorism”. The security forces announced “cleansing operations.” Within two weeks of the announcement, the government said that nearly 40 percent of Rohingya villages had been targeted by the army , with 176 out of 471 villages empty of people, and an additional 34 villages “partially abandoned.”

“Collective punishment is a war crime”

The government has severely restricted access to the area, criticized aid organizations trying to help the victims, and refused to accept a high-level UN mission of inquiry. This makes it hard to come to anything like a definitive assessment of what is happening on the ground. While no one disputes the right of the government to protect itself and the security of its people, it does not have the right to carry out indiscriminate attacks on the civilian population. Under the Geneva Conventions, if proved, this would constitute “collective punishment” which is a war crime.

This humanitarian crisis is taking place within a complex of regional tensions involving multiple ethnic and religious communities in several countries, attacks by different armed groups and mobs, terror tactics on all sides, and widespread social, economic and political injustice. It is also affecting the prospects for peace and justice in the country as a whole, and beyond.

The UN Secretary-General, António Guterres, has called on Myanmar’s civilian and military authorities to put an end to what he described as a “humanitarian catastrophe with implications for peace and security that could continue to expand beyond Myanmar’s borders.”

The UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) is on the border where the refugees are flooding into Bangladesh.

Photo: AP 28 August 2017, Daily Sabah, Asia Pacific

This weekend’s  appeal urges people to “give generously to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and other international humanitarian organizations providing aid to Rohingya communities. As Buddhists, we are channeling funds through the UNHCR. Our dana [compassionate giving] can say to Rohingya peoples and to the world that the rain of Buddha’s compassion falls on all beings equally.”

Perhaps Myanmar’s most outstanding global statesman would be pleased by these words. The first non-European UN Secretary General was the Burmese Buddhist, U Thant. In one of his rare public statements about his tradition, he said: “Buddhism teaches, above all, a universal compassion to be extended to all living beings, irrespective of their status, race or creed.”






Is Enlightened Society Possible?

Recently, in talks I have been giving, I have asked people  what they think an enlightened society would be like. Here are the students at Al Akhawayn University in Morocco  offering their thoughts.

“Absolutely, this is it!”


One of the leading universities in the Arab world has begun introducing the practice of mindfulness to its faculty, staff and students, and succeeded in developing a ground-breaking translation that expresses the meaning of mindfulness, for the first time, in Arabic. For a rising generation of religious leaders, the building of this bridge between cultures and traditions has deep meaning.


The rising tide of hatred

“It all begins with the idea of ‘them’ and ‘us’,” says the young imam as we sit together on the floor of the mosque talking about the rising tide of hatred in the world. We gather after Friday prayers – young scholars in the rising generation of Muslim leaders – to talk about the global issues now facing humanity.

It is an unusual gathering, because we also practice mindfulness together. “The practice of mindfulness is important,” one of the young imams tells me. “We appreciate it. We have to be fully present in whatever we do. We have to be fully present in our prayers. We have to be fully present with each other.”

Not only is our shared practice of mindfulness unusual, so is our location. We are at Morocco’s leading university Al Akhawayn – often known as AUI – established by royal decree to promote “the values of human solidarity and tolerance” in this predominantly Muslim nation.

This group of about a dozen imams who have completed their memorization and scriptual study of the Quran are now full-time post-graduate students in the university’s comparative religion program. The program was the brain-child of the country’s Minister for Islamic Affairs who wanted this next generation to have a broader international perspective on the diversity of the world’s wisdom traditions.

Version 3

The university first invited me to present mindfulness practice to the young imams in 2014, to lead an open practice session for the university as a whole, and to give a presidential address on “Seeds of War, Seeds of Peace – Religious Conflict in Today’s World.”

I made no secret of my own buddhist background and took this opportunity to express my deep regret at the rise of buddhist extremism in South and Southeast Asia which has led to devastating attacks on Muslim minorities. The visit also opened the door to an energetic discussion with students and faculty on the question: “Is Enlightened Society Possible?”

We have maintained a relationship ever since, exploring the mindfulness practice tradition together, as well as examining the underlying forces responsible for so much of the conflict and carnage we are witnessing.

Transcending our boundaries

 We found that approaching mindfulness practice from the perspective of the ever-growing body of research into neuroscience was particularly helpful and fascinating to all of us. The scientific focus on the physiology and functionality of the human nervous system has offered us the possibility of looking at ourselves and each in other in ways that transcend the barriers of culture, religious tradition, language, and politics.

The deeper we have gone into this together, the more we have come to value our shared humanity as something more powerful and fundamental than our differences. In the midst of the pain, confusion and fear in the world around us, the words of this next generation strike a deep note of understanding, truth and hope.

 “Them and us” becomes “them or us”

The idea of “them and us” becomes “them or us” the young imam warns me. “You may be right, I may be right. We both believe we are right. But that doesn’t mean that we cannot make a relationship with each other and work together. We are human beings – which means we are different. We have different backgrounds, different languages, different beliefs. But we are human and it is our humanity that is most important. We are one family. Even now, if you examine our DNA, it is clear. We are one family and that is what is most important.”

Partly because of the bridging function that mindfulness practice can play, and partly because of the considerable interest in mindfulness among business leaders, educators and health professionals, the university’s senior leadership asked to receive intensive “mindful leadership” training. After a presentation to the university’s president and other senior officials, they asked the Cologne-based Kalapa Leadership Academy to provide this training.

The Kalapa Academy has run similar programs for major companies such as Audi, Bosch and Jaguar and for institutions such as Oxford University and the European Space Agency. The academy has just been awarded the “Best Training in Europe” Prize given annually since 1992 for training, consulting and coaching, by the European professional association for trainers, consultants and coaches (BDVT).”

Executive training in mindful leadership

The academy’s founder and managing director, Chris Tamdjidi, and I delivered 10 workshops over a period of two and a half months to Al Akhawayn’s 18-strong Executive Leadership Team. The university was well aware of our Buddhist background in the Shambhala tradition of cultivating enlightened society. It regarded our presence as a contribution to its tradition of encouraging inter-faith dialogue, understanding and mutual learning. While acknowledging this, we nevertheless presented mindfulness practice solely from a scientific and experiential perspective.


The participants in the executive training were given digital Attention Network Tests and psychometric self-assessments at the beginning and end of the training. They received individual profiles of their test results and an aggregated research report on the effects of the training on the group as a whole. The data has been added to the cumulative research findings of the Kalapa Academy.

At the end of the training, in addition to completing the psychometric tests, they talked to us about their experience. They told us they felt the training had made an impact on them in three areas of their lives: individual, professional and social.

“A real change in my life”

“I really feel this has been an experience of such positive energy,” said one, highlighting the individual impact. “I feel physically different. I am becoming more calm,” said another. “I do the body scan before going to sleep, which has made a real change in my life.”

Describing the effect on their professional life, one said, “I am being mindful with my colleagues. We deal better with each other in our meetings and we are more productive.” The training seemed to resonate with the experience many of these leaders had in running the institution’s complexity and diversity. “I now have ‘names’ for the ways of working with others that I knew from my own previous experience,” said one. “I have found the team-building aspect of our mindfulness training to be of great benefit.”

The third aspect that some described the social impact, including on their home lives. “I have learned how to adjust from leaving work to going home,” said one. “I really notice the difference in the ‘me’ I am at home. I am able to close my work day before I leave for home. I now relate to my wife and kids with a far better version of ‘me’ than the previous version of the person who brought the stress of work home with him.”

Progressive possibilities

In the course of the executive training, the former director of the university’s School of Business Adminstration, Dr Wafa El Garah – now Vice-President for Academic Affairs – said they would like to offer a course on “Mindful Leadership” during the business school’s summer semester. Her hope was that this would offer progressive possibilities for mindfulness training to all faculty, staff and students. I have now returned from leading that summer program, daily over seven weeks, including during their observance of the holy month of Ramadan.


“This course was a great opportunity for me to take some time during the day and be with myself,” one of the students said. “It was an opporunity to feel the tension in my body, to feel my breathing, to feel myself actually.”

“Mindfulness helped me a lot,” said another one who, along with the others, made a personal video showing her understanding and personal experience of mindfulness practice. “I’m a person who always finds herself daydreaming and focussing on other stuff – anything but the present moment,” she said. “Mindfulness helped me in being less stressful and in enjoying life.”

Her video shows her teaching mindfulness to her mother and to her younger brother and sister. As one of the other students said, “If we can synchronize the activity of the billions of neurons we have in our brains and nervous systems, what we can accomplish will be amazing.”

“It is our people who suffer most at the hands of ISIS”

After ISIS killers carried out the “Bataclan massacre” in Paris, the university’s young imams sent a message to me asking if I could visit to meditate with them and talk. They continue to be appalled by the staggering levels of violence that are tearing apart so much of the Middle East, North Africa and sub-Saharan Africa – and the repercussions around the world. “After all,” as one of them said to me, “it is our people, the Muslims, who are suffering the most at the hands of ISIS.”

“Only violence makes the news, not peace”

“Even worse,” they said, “this death-cult has turned the world against Islam – when in fact what these monsters are doing is against everything that Islam truly represents. We can say this to you from our hearts because we are Islamic scholars and we have trained in this tradition all our lives. But you do not see our voices anywhere in the media, because only violence makes the news, not peace.”

Our perceptions of the world and how these are shaped have been a constant theme in our conversations. Many times the imams have talked about what they believe to be selective interpretation of events by much of the world’s news media.

They point out that a conference held in Morocco earlier this year adopted a Marrakesh Declaration calling for the protection of religious minorities in predominantly Muslim countries. It was attended by some 250 Muslim leaders and scholars from virtually all the main traditions within Islam. I was honoured to be there as part of a small group of international guests from different faith traditions.


The Muslim leaders unanimously agreed “to confront all forms of religious bigotry, villification, and denegration of what people hold sacred, as well as all speech that promotes hatred and bigotry” and affirmed that it is “unconscionable to employ religion for the purpose of aggressing upon the rights of religious minorities in Muslim countries.”

To date, none of us are not aware of any significant coverage of this historic event by any of the world’s major news media.

As a result of the time we spent practicing mindfulness together and having open-hearted conversations, I felt these rising leaders wanted to be offered, not only the hand of friendship, but also a bridge to a world that all too often seems closed to dialogue. They want the walls of ignorance and prejudice to come down. Writing – with their permission – about these intimate exchanges I have had with them is, I hope, a way of bringing their voices to wider attention.

Finding the right word in Arabic

One of the challenges we faced was finding the right word to express the notion of “mindfulness” in Arabic. The original term in the Pali language of South Asia is “sati.”

It denotes the ability of the human mind to be cognizant of its own nature, activity and experience. Dr Jon Kabat-Zinn uses this definition: “paying attention on purpose, in the present moment, non judgmentally.” The university’s president, Dr Driss Oauouicha, took the lead in finding a meaningful Arabic equivalent.

“Although you can find translations on the web, there is no translation in Arabic, as far as we know, that really expresses the experience of mindfulness,” he told his leadership team. “Our first efforts were translations based on the French, ‘pleine conscience’. But we felt that was not the full meaning. So we then consulted Professor Bouchaib Idrissi Bouyahiaoui, the founding director of Morocco’s national translation and interpretation school. We discussed it together for some time and I think we came up with an expression that seemed to both of us to convey what we are talking about. In French this would be ‘la veille de l’esprit’, or in English, ‘the mind fully awake and observing’.”


A phonetic rendering of the term in English would be: “Yah-khah-dha Dhih-ní-a”.

Soon after this translation was adopted by the university, we were able to present it to Her Excellency Ms Ohood Al Roumi, the recently appointed Minister of State for Happiness of the United Arab Emirates. She was visiting the London School of Economics in June this year to examine its research into happiness and also requested meetings with the University of Oxford Mindfulness Centre and with the UK All-Party Parliamentary Group on Mindfulness and the UK Mindfulness Initiative. They made a considerable impact internationally with the publication of their 2015 report, Mindful Nation UK.


The delegation that met her included Chris Tamdjidi as well as the founder of the UK parliamentary group, Chris Ruane, who is shown above presenting the framed translation. During the meeting, Minister Al Roumi explained that she herself had already engaged in a mindfulness course and that both she and a number of her colleagues who took part found it to be extremely helpful.

“Absolutely, this is it!”

Minister Al Roumi remarked that there was no word for mindfulness in Arabic, and there needed to be one.  However as soon as she saw the framed calligraphy she exclaimed, “I agree, absolutely, this is it!”

The students and faculty in Morocco were inspired at news of this endorsement and by the feeling that these initiaives could spread throughout their region. “This could have a really positive impact on the culture in our region and how we communicate and work together,” said one.

“I really hope we can show the world how mindfulness works,” said the young woman who is getting her family to practice with her. “And I really hope that we can make Morocco a leader in mindfulness.”

Some of us must build bridges

“Some of us must build bridges, when others are building walls,” I said when a man who sells flowers in our neighbourhood warned me not to go into the Muslim world. He had asked me where my travels would take me next. “To the Muslim lands of North Africa,” I said. He was shocked. “That’s dangerous. Be careful. Why are you going there?”


I told this story during a 90-minute online broadcast on The Open Heart Project  founded by Susan Piver, which now has a global audience of 20,000. It was an opportunity to reflect on the huge challenges facing our global society, lead a real-time “Enlightened Society Meditation” and answer questions. One listener asked me a question that’s on a lot of people’s minds these days: “Do you find it hard to believe in the basic goodness of people when terrible things are happening in the world.”

Our Sacred Responsibility

Statement to the
“Marrakech Declaration” Conference on
The Rights of Minorities in Muslim Lands
Morocco, 25 – 27 January 2016


Distinguished leaders and guests,

We are gathering at a time of rising hatred.

Our family – the human family – is being torn apart.

The fires of hatred are not only claiming the lives of thousands of people and driving millions from their homes. Hatred is poisoning minds and hearts around the world.

Read the full statement in Arabic or French

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The woman who rose above the hate

“I have the sincere belief that if people get to know each other, one on one, that they’ll stop being afraid of each other, and we’ll be able to get rid of all this hate in the world,” said Rose Hamid, the 56-year-old Muslim flight attendant who stood up in silence during Donald Trump’s campaign rally last week – and was ejected.

The Woman Who Rose Above the Hate 1The incident occurred at a Trump rally in Rock Hill, South Carolina, attended by more than 2,000 of his supporters. Wearing a white head scarf and a turquoise shirt that read “Salam, I come in peace”, she was reported to have said in advance, “I figured that most Trump supporters probably never met a Muslim so I figured that I’d give them the opportunity to meet one.”

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War Crimes in Paradise

In the year 1400 John de Marignolli, the Papal Ambassador to the Court of the Mongolian Emperor, wrote about Sri Lanka, then known as Seyllan: “From Seyllan to Paradise is a distance of forty Italian leagues, so it is said that the sound of waters falling from the fountains of Paradise is heard there.”

Six hundred and fifteen years later, the United Nations is due to publish a detailed report on war crimes and other serious abuses in the country. At a session of the United Nations Human Rights Council on Monday this week, the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights said the report’s findings “are of the most serious nature.”

War Crimes 1

“It is absolutely clear, given the findings in this report, that there must be a great deal of soul-searching that needs to take place if Sri Lanka is going to ensure non-recurrence,” said High Commissioner Zeid Ra’ad Al Hussein. “It is crucial that this historic opportunity for truly fundamental change not be allowed to slip.”

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Cultural Carnage and the Triumph of the Spirit

Sometimes, at the moment of death, a human being becomes immortal. Their spirit triumphs over their mortality. Thus it was this week for the tortured keeper of the treasures of the ancient city of Palmyra.

Three months ago Islamic State fighters overran it.

This week, Khalid al-Assad, the 82-year-old archaeologist who was instrumental in the effort to save the site’s priceless antiquities, was publicly beheaded and his headless corpse hung from the remains of a Roman column.

He endured torture for a month, but still refused to disclose where the city’s sacred relics had been hidden.

Cultural Carnage

“His work will live on far beyond the reach of these extremists,” said UNESCO’s Director-General, Irina Bokova. ”They murdered a great man, but they will never silence history.”

Before being seized and tortured by Islamic State, he was urged by fellow archaeologists in the Syrian capital, Damascus, to flee for his life. He is reported to have told them he was born in Palmyra, had devoted his life to the world heritage site and would die there.

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Dialogue on the global challenge of Islamophobia

I am deeply concerned about the global challenge of the spread of Islamophobia. There is a compelling need for the international community to understand and meet this challenge, just as surely as it would need to combat any epidemic that threatens the well-being of humanity.


Recently, I was invited to speak about religious conflict in today’s world at one of Morocco’s leading universities. This place of higher learning, Al Akhawayn University, belongs to the same international network, the Council of Independent Colleges, as Naropa University.

It is an independent, public, coeducational university established by Royal Decree to promote “the values of human solidarity and tolerance”. So it was a truly appropriate setting in which to talk about religious hatred.

I spoke from the perspective of two leadership positions I hold. I am the Chair of the International Working Group on Sri Lanka. It that works working for a just, peaceful and equitable resolution to the continuing conflicts in that country. In the last two years there have been more than 300 attacks on mosques, businesses and homes of Sri Lanka’s Muslim population – as well as attacks on other religious minorities. It deeply saddens me to say that these have been led, in many cases, by Buddhist monks and carried out in the name of Buddhism.

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